Hyperbaric Oxygenation Treatment is widely used in traumas that affect different organs and tissues. Some traumatisms that require surgery and can be treated with HBOT are acute traumatic ischemia, compartment syndrome, and injuries involving nerve, muscle, and bone tissue.
In rehabilitation, HBOT favors the recovery of neurological and physical sequelae resulting from surgeries, traumatic injuries and cerebrovascular accidents (CVA). In addition, this therapy is useful to improve the quality of life of patients affected by chronic neurological pathologies such as neurological metabolic disorders associated with aging, Parkinson’s disease and cerebral palsy.
The injuries compromise the patient’s health, since they trigger a state of regional or general hypoxia by compromising the perfusion of some tissues and, therefore, their viability. Under hypoxic conditions, angiogenesis becomes slower and even nil, decreases the function of fibroblasts and the formation of collagen is compromised. At the cellular level, hyperoxia resolves all these functions, since they are dependent on O2.
In situations of injuries and cerebral ischemia, the state of hypoxia is responsible for neuronal damage, inefficient synapses and alterations in irrigation and perfusion. These phenomena are due to the alteration of metabolism and neuronal activity in hypoxia.
The objective of therapies in cerebral ischemia is to rescue normal tissue, which is at risk of suffering irreversible damage due to O2 deprivation and the consequent energetic and metabolic alteration. Therefore, therapeutic measures focus on improving blood flow and preserving cellular function. In this context, HBOT plays an important role in neuronal protection during ischemic situations, through the action of hyperoxia by reducing lipo-peroxidation in situations of ischemia and ischemia-reperfusion processes.
HBOT can reduce the inflammatory state and cerebral edema, favors the repair of axons and stimulate their growth, decreases the severity of stroke and maintain the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. It also favors the redistribution of cerebral blood flow, relieving intracranial pressure and its symptoms. It attenuates the motor deficit, decreases the risks of sequelae and prevents recurrent cerebral circulatory disorders, improving survival after neurological trauma.
In cases of injury and traumatic injury that affect the Central Nervous System, HBOT promotes neuroprotection and neurogenesis, in a concomitant manner with angiogenesis and improvement in brain flow, and promotes neuroplasticity. In patients with chronic crush injuries, HBOT promotes improvements in cognitive tests, physical and imaging (SPECT), quality of life and pain relief. It was also observed that HBOT accelerates neurological recovery after spinal cord injury, improving mitochondrial function in the motor cortex and spinal cord, reversing hypoxia and reducing edema.
In different studies the effect of hyperbaric oxygenation in the damaged brain has been studied and it was found that it inhibits neuronal death and stops the progression of neurological necrosis. In addition, it improves blood flow in regions affected by chronic neurological diseases, as well as aerobic metabolism in brain lesions, accelerating the resolution of clinical symptoms.
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a brain disorder in the development stage that affects the motor system, manifested through seizures, intellectual abnormalities, speech and vision. Although PC is a pathology that does not present specific medical treatment, beyond the support therapies, it was observed that HBOT can improve the function of damaged cells and attenuate the effects of cerebral hypoxia.
It was also observed that HBOT is able to stimulate antioxidant defenses, improve neurological function, and attenuate motor deficits through the stimulation of fine and gross motor control, to relieve spasticity. HBOT is indicated in traumatized patients to maintain tissue viability and muscle aerobic metabolism, reduce post-traumatic edema and improve capillary perfusion of the muscle, prevent ischemia / reperfusion injury, promote host response against infections, and improve scarring, reducing amputations, complications and peripheral nerve injuries that accompany these injuries.
HBOT is used as an adjuvant treatment in rehabilitation to accelerate recovery, relieve pain, reduce inflammation and edema, the risk of complications, reconstitute perfusion, reduce tremors and stiffness, improve neuronal recovery and quality of life. lifetime. The results of the therapy with hyperbaric oxygenation in patients with traumatisms, brain and spinal cord injury and sequelae to different processes are promising.
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